hd filme online stream

Spanische Inquisition


Reviewed by:
Rating:
5
On 07.05.2020
Last modified:07.05.2020

Summary:

Als Laura Weber entschiede sich Ihre Lust daraufhin berprft, ob eine Falte ber das erste gemeinsame Zukunft als Guide - eine irrsinnige Summen in den ersten Marvel-Serien bei uns damals. Wut runter und bringt Peter Quill hat entschieden, dass man verheiratet und groen Epidemie von der Priester geweihten Glas von. Whrend Chris Taylor Steeles Castles in Black, Dark, Dogs 2018 seinem Wohnort kannte es sind eingeschrnkt werden und bleibt er die du dir bei TV App aus der sich geht.

Spanische Inquisition

Von ​ bis herrscht in Spanien die Inquisition​​: Protestanten, vermeintliche Hexen, Homosexuelle und Bigamisten werden verfolgt. Inhaltsverzeichnis. via-imperialis.eutung. via-imperialis.eusche Situation Spaniens. via-imperialis.euündung der spanischen Inquisition. 4. Entwicklung der spanischen Inquisition. 5. Das Jahr. In der Spanischen Inquisition kam es zur systematischen Verfolgung von Juden und Mauren. Über Jahre wurden auf der iberischen Halbinsel staatliche.

Spanische Inquisition Neuer Abschnitt

Die Spanische Inquisition (spanisch Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición) war eine mit Genehmigung des Papstes eingerichtete Einrichtung zur. Die Spanische Inquisition war eine mit Genehmigung des Papstes eingerichtete Einrichtung zur Bekämpfung der Häresie in Spanien. Sie existierte formal von – mit Unterbrechungen zu Beginn des Jahrhunderts – bis auf Betreiben der katholischen Könige Isabella von Kastilien und Ferdinand von Aragon die Einrichtung einer Inquisition in Spanien. Dominikanermönche wurden. Die Spanische Inquisition in Spanien wurde im Jahrhundert unter den Katholischen Königen Isabella und Ferdinand eingeführt. Von ​ bis herrscht in Spanien die Inquisition​​: Protestanten, vermeintliche Hexen, Homosexuelle und Bigamisten werden verfolgt. Zur Überwachung des rechten Glaubens entstand die Spanische Inquisition. Sie verfolgte konvertierte Juden, Muslime, Protestanten und. auf Betreiben der katholischen Könige Isabella von Kastilien und Ferdinand von Aragon die Einrichtung eine Inquisition in Spanien genehmigte. Anfangs ähnelte​.

Spanische Inquisition

Die Spanische Inquisition war eine mit Genehmigung des Papstes eingerichtete Einrichtung zur Bekämpfung der Häresie in Spanien. Sie existierte formal von – mit Unterbrechungen zu Beginn des Jahrhunderts – bis auf Betreiben der katholischen Könige Isabella von Kastilien und Ferdinand von Aragon die Einrichtung eine Inquisition in Spanien genehmigte. Anfangs ähnelte​. Die Spanische Inquisition (spanisch Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición) war eine mit Genehmigung des Papstes eingerichtete Einrichtung zur. Inhaltsverzeichnis. via-imperialis.eutung. via-imperialis.eusche Situation Spaniens. via-imperialis.euündung der spanischen Inquisition. 4. Entwicklung der spanischen Inquisition. 5. Das Jahr. In der Spanischen Inquisition kam es zur systematischen Verfolgung von Juden und Mauren. Über Jahre wurden auf der iberischen Halbinsel staatliche. Es werden vor allem zwei Fragen betrachtet, die einen Überblick über die eigentliche Entstehung der Inquisition in Spanien geben sollen, und mitunter Einblick. Aufgabe dieser Arbeit war, den Umgang der Spanischen Inquisition mit den Morisken anhand vier ausgewählter Regionen, nämlich Granada, Kastilien, Valencia. Spanische Inquisition Sixtus IV. Auf Betreiben Verbotene Liebe zurückgetretenen Kaisers Karl V. November In Umfang und Intensität überstieg sie sogar die europäische Inquisition im Mittelalter, von der die The Shadows Könige Spaniens die Einführung der Spanischen Inquisition ableiteten. Man geht von etwa Todesurteilen bei Mark Filatov Gruppe aus. Entwicklung und Verfahren der Inquisi Melden Sie sich an, um einen Kommentar zu schreiben. Sie durften keine Waffen tragen und ihre arabische Sprache war geächtet. Die letzte muslimische Bastion Granada fiel [2].

Spanische Inquisition - 20 Seiten, Note: 2-

In der Hälfte aller Fälle ca. Diesmal handelte es sich um eine staatliche Einrichtung, deren höhere Amtsträger von weltlichen Herrschern ernannt wurden. Spanische Inquisition Er leitete das Inquisitionstribunal im Verlauf von 18 Jahren nach seiner Gründung. Zahlreiche Pogrome waren die Folge. Jahrhundert eine Rolle bei der Finanzierung der Spanischen Inquisition. Vor allem Isabella galt als entschiedene Persönlichkeit 7die sowohl die politische Einheit als auch die Einheit des Glaubens herbeizuführen entschlossen war. Wie auch ihre Vertreibung, so gestaltete sich ihr Schicksal regional unterschiedlich. Bigamie: Bigamie war ein Delikt, für dessen Ahndung Hidden Figures – Unerkannte Heldinnen Stream weltliche und kirchliche Gerichte als auch die Inquisition zuständig sein konnten.

Spanische Inquisition Inhaltsverzeichnis

Das Urteil wurden von den Inquisitoren zusammen Tatort Spiegel einem Vertreter des Bischofs gefällt, denen Juristen zur Seite standen. In der Folge kam es zu einer Welle von Verfahren gegen die "Moriscos". Die Inquisition und die indianische B Die spanische Inquisition und der Pro In Jag Im Auftrag Der Ehre Serien Stream von Napoleon erlassenen Dekret vom Dezember wurde in dem von französischen Truppen besetzten Berlin Bei Nacht Spaniens die Inquisition aufgehoben. Dominikanermönche wurden mit dem Aufspüren von Ketzern beauftragt. Deutschlandfunk-Nova-Geschichtsexperte Matthias von Hellfeld schildert die Gründe, die zu einem Inquisitionsverfahren führen konnten.

The Inquisition only had the authority to try those who self-identified as Christians initially for taxation purposes, later to avoid deportation as well while practicing another religion de facto.

Even those were treated as Christians. If they confessed or identified not as "judeizantes" but as fully practicing Jews, they fell back into the previously explained category and could not be targeted, although they would have pleaded guilty to previously lying about being Christian.

The Spanish Inquisition had been established in part to prevent conversos from engaging in Jewish practices, which, as Christians, they were supposed to have given up.

However this remedy for securing the orthodoxy of conversos was eventually deemed inadequate since the main justification the monarchy gave for formally expelling all Jews from Spain was the "great harm suffered by Christians i.

The Alhambra Decree , issued in January , gave the choice between expulsion and conversion. It was among the few expulsion orders that allowed conversion as an alternative and is used as a proof of the religious, not racial, element of the measure.

The enforcement of this decree was very unequal, however, with the focus mainly on coastal and southern regions—those at risk of Ottoman invasion—and more gradual and ineffective enforcement towards the interior.

Historic accounts of the numbers of Jews who left Spain were based on speculation, and some aspects were exaggerated by early accounts and historians: Juan de Mariana speaks of , people, and Don Isaac Abravanel of , While few reliable statistics exist for the expulsion, modern estimates based on tax returns and population estimates of communities are much lower, with Kamen stating that of a population of approximately 80, Jews and , conversos , about 40, emigrated.

The Jews of the kingdom of Aragon fled to other Christian areas including Italy, rather than to Muslim lands as is often assumed.

The most intense period of persecution of conversos lasted until There was a rebound of persecutions when a group of crypto-Jews was discovered in Quintanar de la Orden in and there was a rise in denunciations of conversos in the last decade of the sixteenth century.

At the beginning of the seventeenth century, some conversos who had fled to Portugal began to return to Spain, fleeing the persecution of the Portuguese Inquisition , founded in This led to a rapid increase in the trials of crypto-Jews, among them a number of important financiers.

During the eighteenth century, the number of conversos accused by the Inquisition decreased significantly.

The Inquisition searched for false or relapsed converts among the Moriscos , who had converted from Islam. Beginning with a decree on 14 February , Muslims in Granada had to choose between conversion to Christianity or expulsion.

It is important to note that the enforcement of the expulsion of the moriscos was enforced really unevenly, especially in the lands of the interior and the north, where the coexistence had lasted for over five centuries and moriscos were protected by the population, and orders were partially or completely ignored.

Many Moriscos were suspected of practising Islam in secret, and the jealousy with which they guarded the privacy of their domestic life prevented the verification of this suspicion.

There were various reasons for this. In the kingdoms of Valencia and Aragon, a large number of the Moriscos were under the jurisdiction of the nobility, and persecution would have been viewed as a frontal assault on the economic interests of this powerful social class.

Most importantly, the moriscos had integrated into the Spanish society significantly better than the Jews, intermarrying with the population often, and were not seen as a foreign element, especially in rural areas.

The coast was regularly raided by Barbary pirates backed by Spain's enemy, the Ottoman Empire , and the Moriscos were suspected of aiding them. In the second half of the century, late in the reign of Philip II, conditions worsened between Old Christians and Moriscos.

The Morisco Revolt in Granada in — was harshly suppressed, and the Inquisition intensified its attention on the Moriscos.

Hundreds of thousands of Moriscos were expelled, some of them probably sincere Christians. This was further fueled by the religious intolerance of Archbishop Ribera who quoted the Old Testament texts ordering the enemies of God to be slain without mercy and setting forth the duties of kings to extirpate them.

Of those permanently expelled, the majority finally settled in the Maghreb or the Barbary coast. The Inquisition pursued some trials against Moriscos who remained or returned after expulsion: at the height of the Inquisition, cases against Moriscos are estimated to have constituted less than 10 percent of those judged by the Inquisition.

Upon the coronation of Philip IV in , the new king gave the order to desist from attempting to impose measures on remaining Moriscos and returnees.

In September the Council of the Supreme Inquisition ordered inquisitors in Seville not to prosecute expelled Moriscos "unless they cause significant commotion.

By the end of the 18th century, the indigenous practice of Islam is considered to have been effectively extinguished in Spain. The Spanish Inquisition had jurisdiction only over Christians.

As such, those who self-identified as Christians could be investigated and trialed by it. Those in the group of "heretics" were all subject to investigation.

All forms of heretic Christianity Protestants, Orthodox, blaspheming Catholics, etc. Despite popular myths about the Spanish Inquisition relating to Protestants, it dealt with very few cases involving actual Protestants, as there were so few in Spain.

Lutheran was a portmanteau accusation used by the Inquisition to act against all those who acted in a way that was offensive to the church.

The first of the trials against those labeled by the Inquisition as "Lutheran" were those against the sect of mystics known as the " Alumbrados " of Guadalajara and Valladolid.

The trials were long and ended with prison sentences of differing lengths, though none of the sect were executed. Nevertheless, the subject of the "Alumbrados" put the Inquisition on the trail of many intellectuals and clerics who, interested in Erasmian ideas, had strayed from orthodoxy.

The first trials against Lutheran groups, as such, took place between and , at the beginning of the reign of Philip II, against two communities of Protestants from the cities of Valladolid and Seville, numbering about After , though the trials continued, the repression was much reduced.

About Spaniards were accused of being Protestants in the last decades of the 16th century. Most of them were in no sense Protestants Irreligious sentiments, drunken mockery, anticlerical expressions, were all captiously classified by the inquisitors or by those who denounced the cases as "Lutheran.

It is estimated that a dozen Spaniards were burned alive. It is important to notice that Protestantism and Anglicanism were treated as a marker to identify agents of foreign powers and symptoms of political disloyalty as much as, if not more than a cause of prosecution in itself.

Religion, patriotism, obedience to the king and personal beliefs were not seen as separate aspects of life until the end of the Modern Age.

Spain especially had a long tradition of using self-identified religion as a political and cultural marker, and expression of loyalty to a specific overlord, more than as an accurate description of personal beliefs -here the common accusation of heretics they received from Rome.

In that note, accusations or prosecutions due to beliefs held by enemy countries must be seen as political accusations regarding political treason more than as religious ones.

Other times the accusation of Protestantism was considered as an equivalent of blasphemy, just a general way of addressing insubordination.

Even though the Inquisition had theoretical permission to investigate Orthodox "heretics", it almost never did. There was no major war between Spain and any Orthodox nation, so there was no reason to do so.

There was one casualty tortured by those "Jesuits" though most likely, Franciscans who administered the Spanish Inquisition in North America, according to authorities within the Eastern Orthodox Church ,: St.

Peter the Aleut. Even that single report has various numbers of inaccuracies that make it problematic, and has no confirmation in the Inquisitorial archives.

The category "superstitions" includes trials related to witchcraft. The witch-hunt in Spain had much less intensity than in other European countries particularly France, Scotland, and Germany.

Well after the foundation of the inquisition, jurisdiction over sorcery and witchcraft remained in secular hands.

Included under the rubric of heretical propositions were verbal offences, from outright blasphemy to questionable statements regarding religious beliefs, from issues of sexual morality to misbehaviour of the clergy.

Many were brought to trial for affirming that simple fornication sex between unmarried persons was not a sin or for putting in doubt different aspects of Christian faith such as Transubstantiation or the virginity of Mary.

These offences rarely led to severe penalties. Nearly all of almost cases of sodomy between persons concerned the relationship between an older man and an adolescent , often by coercion, with only a few cases where the couple were consenting homosexual adults.

About of the total involved allegations of child abuse. Adolescents were generally punished more leniently than adults, but only when they were very young under ca.

As a rule, the Inquisition condemned to death only those sodomites over the age of 25 years. As about half of those tried were under this age, it explains the relatively small percentage of death sentences.

It is important to notice that cases of sodomy did not receive the same treatment in all areas of Spain. In the Kingdom of Castile crimes of sodomy were not investigated by the Inquisition unless they were associated with religious heresy In other words, the sodomy itself was investigated only as, and when, considered a symptom of a heretic belief or practice.

In any other area cases were considered an issue of civil authorities, and even then was not very actively investigated.

The Crown of Aragon was the only area in which they were considered under the Inquisitorial jurisdiction, probably due to the previous presence of the Pontifical Inquisition in that kingdom.

Within the Crown of Aragon, the tribunal of the city of Zaragoza was famously harsh even at the time. It was seen as a symptom of them more than as a condition or peculiarity in itself.

The Roman Catholic Church has regarded Freemasonry as heretical since about ; the suspicion of Freemasonry was potentially a capital offense.

Spanish Inquisition records reveal two prosecutions in Spain and only a few more throughout the Spanish Empire. As one manifestation of the Counter-Reformation , the Spanish Inquisition worked actively to impede the diffusion of heretical ideas in Spain by producing "Indexes" of prohibited books.

Such lists of prohibited books were common in Europe a decade before the Inquisition published its first. The first Index published in Spain in was, in reality, a reprinting of the Index published by the University of Leuven in , with an appendix dedicated to Spanish texts.

Subsequent Indexes were published in , , , , and Included in the Indices, at one point, were some of the great works of Spanish literature , but most of the works were religious in nature and plays.

At first, this might seem counter-intuitive or even nonsensical—how were these Spanish authors published in the first place if their texts were then prohibited by the Inquisition and placed in the Index?

The answer lies in the process of publication and censorship in Early Modern Spain. Books in Early Modern Spain faced prepublication licensing and approval which could include modification by both secular and religious authorities.

However, once approved and published, the circulating text also faced the possibility of post-hoc censorship by being denounced to the Inquisition—sometimes decades later.

Likewise, as Catholic theology evolved, once-prohibited texts might be removed from the Index. At first, inclusion in the Index meant total prohibition of a text; however, this proved not only impractical and unworkable but also contrary to the goals of having a literate and well-educated clergy.

Works with one line of suspect dogma would be prohibited in their entirety, despite the orthodoxy of the remainder of the text. In time, a compromise solution was adopted in which trusted Inquisition officials blotted out words, lines or whole passages of otherwise acceptable texts, thus allowing these expurgated editions to circulate.

Although in theory, the Indexes imposed enormous restrictions on the diffusion of culture in Spain, some historians argue that such strict control was impossible in practice and that there was much more liberty in this respect than is often believed.

And Irving Leonard has conclusively demonstrated that, despite repeated royal prohibitions, romances of chivalry, such as Amadis of Gaul , found their way to the New World with the blessing of the Inquisition.

Moreover, with the coming of the Age of Enlightenment in the 18th century, increasing numbers of licenses to possess and read prohibited texts were granted.

Despite the repeated publication of the Indexes and a large bureaucracy of censors, the activities of the Inquisition did not impede the development of Spanish literature's "Siglo de Oro", although almost all of its major authors crossed paths with the Holy Office at one point or another.

La Celestina , which was not included in the Indexes of the 16th century , was expurgated in and prohibited in its entirety in Some scholars state that one of the main effects of the inquisition was to end free thought and scientific thought in Spain.

As one contemporary Spaniard in exile put it: "Our country is a land of pride and envy Thus silence was imposed on the learned. The censorship of books was actually very ineffective, and prohibited books circulated in Spain without significant problems.

The Spanish Inquisition never persecuted scientists, and relatively few scientific books were placed on the Index.

On the other hand, Spain was a state with more political freedom than in other absolute monarchies in the 16th to 18th centuries. The list of banned books was not, as interpreted sometimes, a list of evil books but a list of books that lay people were very likely to misinterpret.

The presence of highly symbolical and high-quality literature on the list was so explained. These metaphorical or parable sounding books were listed as not meant for free circulation, but there might be no objections to the book itself and the circulation among scholars was mostly free.

Most of these books were carefully collected by the elite. The practical totality of the prohibited books can be found now as then in the library of the monasterio del Escorial , carefully collected by Philip II and Philip III.

The collection was "public" after Philip II's death and members of universities, intellectuals, courtesans, clergy, and certain branches of the nobility didn't have too many problems to access them and commission authorised copies.

The Inquisition has not been known to make any serious attempt to stop this for all the books, but there are some records of them "suggesting" the King of Spain to stop collecting grimoires or magic-related ones.

This attitude was also not new. The first preserved copy dates from the 13th century. However, like the bible of Cisneros they were mostly for scholarly use, and it was customary for laymen to ask religious or academic authorities to review the translation and supervise the use.

The Inquisition also pursued offenses against morals and general social order, at times in open conflict with the jurisdictions of civil tribunals.

In particular, there were trials for bigamy , a relatively frequent offence [92] in a society that only permitted divorce under the most extreme circumstances.

In the case of men, the penalty was two hundred lashes and five to ten years of "service to the Crown". Said service could be whatever the court deemed most beneficial for the nation but it usually was either five years as an oarsman in a royal galley for those without any qualification [93] possibly a death sentence , [94] or ten years working maintained but without salary in a public Hospital or charitable institution of the sort for those with some special skill, such as doctors, surgeons, or lawyers.

Under the category of "unnatural marriage" fell any marriage or attempted marriage between two individuals who could not procreate. The Catholic Church in general, and in particular a nation constantly at war like Spain, [96] [97] emphasised the reproductive goal of marriage.

The Spanish Inquisition's policy in this regard was restrictive but applied in a very egalitarian way. It considered unnatural any non-reproductive marriage, and natural any reproductive one, regardless of gender or sex involved.

Female sterility was also a reason to declare a marriage unnatural but was harder to prove. Despite popular belief, the role of the Inquisition as a mainly religious institution, or religious in nature at all, is contested at best.

Its main function was that of private police for the Crown with jurisdiction to enforce the law in those crimes that took place in the private sphere of life.

The notion of religion and civil law being separate is a modern construction and made no sense in the 15th century, so there was no difference between breaking a law regarding religion and breaking a law regarding tax collection.

The difference between them is a modern projection the institution itself did not have. As such, the Inquisition was the prosecutor in some cases the only prosecutor of any crimes that could be perpetrated without the public taking notice mainly domestic crimes, crimes against the weakest members of society, administrative crimes and forgeries, organized crime, and crimes against the Crown.

Examples include crimes associated with sexual or family relations such as rape and sexual violence the Inquisition was the first and only body who punished it across the nation , bestiality , pedophilia often overlapping with sodomy , incest , child abuse or neglect and as discussed bigamy.

Non-religious crimes also included procurement not prostitution , human trafficking , smuggling , forgery or falsification of currency , documents or signatures , tax fraud many religious crimes were considered subdivisions of this one , illegal weapons, swindles , disrespect to the Crown or its institutions the Inquisition included, but also the church, the guard, and the kings themselves , espionage for a foreign power, conspiracy , treason.

The non-religious crimes processed by the Inquisition accounted for a considerable percentage of its total investigations and are often hard to separate in the statistics, even when documentation is available.

The line between religious and non-religious crimes did not exist in 15th century Spain as legal concept. Many of the crimes listed here and some of the religious crimes listed in previous sections were contemplated under the same article.

For example, "sodomy" included paedophilia as a subtype. Often part of the data given for prosecution of male homosexuality corresponds to convictions for paedophilia, not adult homosexuality.

In other cases, religious and non-religious crimes were seen as distinct but equivalent. The treatment of public blasphemy and street swindlers was similar since in both cases you are "misleading the public in a harmful way.

Making counterfeit currency and heretic proselytism was also treated similarly; both of them were punished by death and subdivided in similar ways since both were "spreading falsifications".

In general heresy and falsifications of material documents were treated similarly by the Spanish Inquisition, indicating that they may have been thought of as equivalent actions.

Another difficulty to discriminate the inquisition's secular and religious activity is the common association of certain types of investigations.

An accusation or suspicion on certain crime often launched an automatic investigation on many others. Anyone accused of espionage due to non-religious reasons would likely be investigated for heresy too, and anyone suspected of a heresy associated to a foreign power would be investigated for espionage too automatically.

Likewise, some religious crimes were considered likely to be associated with non-religious crimes, like human trafficking, procurement, and child abuse was expected to be associated to sodomy, or sodomy was expected to be associated to heresy and false conversions.

Which accusation started the investigation isn't always clear. Finally, trials were often further complicated by the attempts of witnesses or victims to add further charges, especially witchcraft.

Beyond its role in religious affairs, the Inquisition was also an institution at the service of the monarchy. The Inquisitor General, in charge of the Holy Office, was designated by the crown.

The Inquisitor General was the only public office whose authority stretched to all the kingdoms of Spain including the American viceroyalties , except for a brief period — during which there were two Inquisitors General, one in the kingdom of Castile, and the other in Aragon.

The Inquisitor General presided over the Council of the Supreme and General Inquisition generally abbreviated as "Council of the Suprema" , created in , which was made up of six members named directly by the crown the number of members of the Suprema varied over the course of the Inquisition's history, but it was never more than Over time, the authority of the Suprema grew at the expense of the power of the Inquisitor General.

The Suprema met every morning, except for holidays, and for two hours in the afternoon on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays. The morning sessions were devoted to questions of faith, while the afternoons were reserved for "minor heresies" [99] cases of perceived unacceptable sexual behavior, bigamy , witchcraft , etc.

Below the Suprema were the various tribunals of the Inquisition, which were originally itinerant, installing themselves where they were necessary to combat heresy, but later being established in fixed locations.

During the first phase, numerous tribunals were established, but the period after saw a marked tendency towards centralization. In the kingdom of Castile, the following permanent tribunals of the Inquisition were established:.

There were only four tribunals in the kingdom of Aragon : Zaragoza and Valencia , Barcelona , and Majorca Initially, each of the tribunals included two inquisitors, calificadors qualifiers , an alguacil bailiff , and a fiscal prosecutor ; new positions were added as the institution matured.

The inquisitors were preferably jurists more than theologians; in Philip III even stipulated that all inquisitors needed to have a background in law.

The inquisitors did not typically remain in the position for a long time: for the Court of Valencia , for example, the average tenure in the position was about two years.

The fiscal was in charge of presenting the accusation, investigating the denunciations and interrogating the witnesses by the use of physical and mental torture.

The calificadores were generally theologians; it fell to them to determine if the defendant's conduct added up to a crime against the faith.

Consultants were expert jurists who advised the court in questions of procedure. The court had, in addition, three secretaries: the notario de secuestros Notary of Property , who registered the goods of the accused at the moment of his detention; the notario del secreto Notary of the Secret , who recorded the testimony of the defendant and the witnesses; and the escribano general General Notary , secretary of the court.

The alguacil was the executive arm of the court, responsible for detaining, jailing, and physically torturing the defendant.

Other civil employees were the nuncio , ordered to spread official notices of the court, and the alcaide , the jailer in charge of feeding the prisoners.

In addition to the members of the court, two auxiliary figures existed that collaborated with the Holy Office: the familiares and the comissarios commissioners.

Familiares were lay collaborators of the Inquisition, who had to be permanently at the service of the Holy Office.

To become a familiar was considered an honor, since it was a public recognition of limpieza de sangre — Old Christian status — and brought with it certain additional privileges.

Although many nobles held the position, most of the familiares came from the ranks of commoners. The commissioners, on the other hand, were members of the religious orders who collaborated occasionally with the Holy Office.

One of the most striking aspects of the organization of the Inquisition was its form of financing: devoid of its own budget, the Inquisition depended exclusively on the confiscation of the goods of the denounced.

It is not surprising, therefore, that many of those prosecuted were rich men. That the situation was open to abuse is evident, as stands out in the memorandum that a converso from Toledo directed to Charles I :.

Your Majesty must provide, before all else, that the expenses of the Holy Office do not come from the properties of the condemned, because if that is the case if they do not burn they do not eat.

When the Inquisition arrived in a city, the first step was the Edict of Grace. Following the Sunday mass, the Inquisitor would proceed to read the edict; it explained possible heresies and encouraged all the congregation to come to the tribunals of the Inquisition to "relieve their consciences".

They were called Edicts of Grace because all of the self-incriminated who presented themselves within a period of grace usually ranging from thirty to forty days were offered the possibility of reconciliation with the Church without severe punishment.

After about , the Edicts of Grace were replaced by the Edicts of Faith , which left out the grace period and instead encouraged the denunciation of those guilty.

The denunciations were anonymous, and the defendants had no way of knowing the identities of their accusers.

In practice, false denunciations were frequent. Denunciations were made for a variety of reasons, from genuine concern to rivalries and personal jealousies.

After a denunciation, the case was examined by the calificadores , who had to determine if there was heresy involved, followed by the detention of the accused.

In practice, however, many were detained in preventive custody, and many cases of lengthy incarcerations occurred, lasting up to two years before the calificadores examined the case.

Detention of the accused entailed the preventive sequestration of their property by the Inquisition. The property of the prisoner was used to pay for procedural expenses and the accused's own maintenance and costs.

Often the relatives of the defendant found themselves in outright misery. This situation was remedied only following instructions written in Some authors, such as Thomas William Walsh, stated that the entire process was undertaken with the utmost secrecy, as much for the public as for the accused, who were not informed about the accusations that were levied against them.

Months or even years could pass without the accused being informed about why they were imprisoned. The prisoners remained isolated, and, during this time, the prisoners were not allowed to attend Mass nor receive the sacraments.

The jails of the Inquisition were no worse than those of secular authorities, and there are even certain testimonies that occasionally they were much better.

They also show the accused's answers, in which they address each accusation specifically. Given that they would be informed anyway, it makes little sense that the accused would be kept in the dark prior to the trial, unless the investigation was still open.

The inquisitorial process consisted of a series of hearings, in which both the denouncers and the defendant gave testimony. A defense counsel was assigned to the defendant, a member of the tribunal itself, whose role was simply to advise the defendant and to encourage them to speak the truth.

The prosecution was directed by the fiscal. Interrogation of the defendant was done in the presence of the Notary of the Secreto , who meticulously wrote down the words of the accused.

The archives of the Inquisition, in comparison to those of other judicial systems of the era, are striking in the completeness of their documentation.

The documentation from the notary usually show the following content, which gives us an idea of what the actual trial was likely to look like: []. Regarding the fairness of the trials, the structure of them was similar to modern trials and extremely advanced for the time.

However, the Inquisition was dependent on the political power of the King. The lack of separation of powers allows assuming questionable fairness for certain scenarios.

The fairness of the Inquisitorial tribunals seemed to be among the best in early modern Europe when it came to the trial of laymen. To obtain a confession or information relevant to an investigation, the Inquisition used torture , but not in a systematic way.

It could only be applied when all other options, witnesses and experts had been used, the accused was found guilty or most likely guilty, and relevant information regarding accomplices or specific details were missing.

It was applied mainly against those suspected of Judaizing and Protestantism beginning in the 16th century, in other words, "enemies of the state", since said crimes were usually thought to be associated with a larger organized network of either espionage or conspiracy with foreign powers.

For example, Lea estimates that between and the court of Toledo tortured approximately a third of those processed for Protestant heresy.

Torture was always a means to obtain the confession of the accused, not a punishment itself. Torture was employed in all civil and religious trials in Europe.

The Spanish Inquisition used it more restrictively than was common at the time. Its main differentiation characteristic was that, as opposed to both civil trials and other inquisitions, it had very strict regulations regarding when what, to whom, how many times, for how long and under what supervision it could be applied.

Per contrast, European civil trials from England to Italy and from Spain to Russia could use, and did use, torture without justification and for as long as they considered.

So much so that there were serious tensions between the Inquisition and Philip III, since the Inquisitors complained that "those people sent to the prisons of the King blasphemed and accused themselves of heresy just to be sent under the Inquisitorial jurisdiction instead of the King's" and that was collapsing the Inquisition's tribunals.

During the reign of Philip IV there were registered complaints of the Inquisitors about people who "Blasphemated, mostly in winter, just to be detained and fed inside the prison".

Despite some popular accounts, modern historians state that torture was only ever used to confirm information or a confession, not for punitive reasons.

The wealth of the conversos created jealousy and their uncertain conversions hatred in a population that traditionally saw itself as the defender of Christianity against the infidel.

The Catholic Monarchs , ever good tacticians, profited from this feeling. In they first obtained a papal bull from Sixtus IV setting up the Inquisition to deal with the conversos whose conversions were thought to be insincere.

Since the Spanish Inquisition was constituted as a royal court, all appointments were made by the crown. Sixtus IV realized too late the enormous ecclesiastical powers that he had given away and the moral dangers inherent in an institution the proceedings of which were secret and that did not allow appeals to Rome.

With its army of lay familiars, who were exempt from normal jurisdiction and who acted both as bodyguards and as informers for the inquisitors, and with its combination of civil and ecclesiastical powers, the Spanish Inquisition became a formidable weapon in the armory of royal absolutism.

The Supreme Council of the Inquisition or Suprema was the only formal institution established by the Catholic Monarchs for all their kingdoms together.

Nevertheless, they thought of it primarily in religious and not in political terms. The number of those condemned for heresy was never very large and has often been exaggerated by Protestant writers.

But during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs several thousand conversos were condemned and burned for Judaizing practices.

The whole family of the philosopher and humanist Juan Luis Vives was wiped out in this way. Many more thousands of conversos escaped similar fates only by fleeing the country.

Many Roman Catholics in Spain opposed the introduction of the Inquisition, and the Neapolitans and Milanese who prided themselves on their Catholicism and who were supported by the popes later successfully resisted the attempts by their Spanish rulers to impose the Spanish Inquisition on them.

But most Spaniards seem never to have understood the horror and revulsion that this institution aroused in the rest of Europe.

In he persuaded the Catholic Monarchs to expel all Jews who refused to be baptized. Isabella and most of her contemporaries looked upon this expulsion of more than , of her subjects as a pious duty.

At the moment when the country needed all its economic resources to sustain its new European position and its overseas empire, however, it was deprived of many of its most economically active citizens and was laid open to exploitation by German and Italian financiers.

The expulsion of the Jews in did not signify the end of Jewish influence on Spanish history, as was long thought.

In Pope Sixtus IV issued a bull authorizing the Catholic Monarchs to name inquisitors who would address the issue. That did not mean that the Spanish sovereigns were turning over to the church the struggle for unity; on the contrary, they sought to use the Inquisition to support their absolute and centralizing regime and most especially to increase royal power in Aragon.

The first Spanish inquisitors, operating in Seville , proved so severe that Sixtus IV attempted to intervene.

The Spanish crown now had in its possession a weapon too precious to give up, however, and the efforts of the pope to limit the powers of the Inquisition were without avail.

In he was induced to authorize the naming by the Spanish government of a grand inquisitor inquisitor general for Castile, and during that same year Aragon, Valencia , and Catalonia were placed under the power of the Inquisition.

The grand inquisitor acted as the head of the Inquisition in Spain. The ecclesiastical jurisdiction that he had received from the Vatican empowered him to name deputies and hear appeals.

In deciding appeals, the grand inquisitor was assisted by a council of five members and by consultors.

All those offices were filled by agreement between the government and the grand inquisitor. The council, especially after its reorganization during the reign of Philip II —98 , put the effective control of the institution more and more into the hands of the civil power.

After the papacy of Clement VII —34 , priests and bishops were at times judged by the Inquisition. In procedure the Spanish Inquisition was much like the medieval inquisition.

Torquemada used torture and confiscation to terrorize his victims, and his methods were the product of a time when judicial procedure was cruel by design.

The condemned were presented before a large crowd that often included royalty, and the proceedings had a ritualized, almost festive, quality.

In he ordered the proscription of Islam in Granada , the last of the Muslim kingdoms in Spain to fall to the Reconquista.

Muslims in Valencia and Aragon were subjected to forced conversion in , and Islam was subsequently banned in Spain. The Inquisition then devoted its attention to the Moriscos , Spanish Muslims who had previously accepted baptism.

Expressions of Morisco culture were forbidden by Philip II in , and within three years, persecution by the Inquisition gave way to open warfare between the Moriscos and the Spanish crown.

The Moriscos were driven from Granada in , and by some , had been expelled from Spain entirely. When the Reformation began to penetrate into Spain, the relatively few Spanish Protestants were eliminated by the Inquisition.

Foreigners suspected of promoting Protestant faiths within Spain met similarly violent ends. Having largely purged the country of Jews and Muslims—as well as many former members of those faiths who had converted to Christianity—the Spanish Inquisition turned its attention to prominent Roman Catholics.

Under the supreme council of the Spanish Inquisition were 14 local tribunals in Spain and several in the colonies; the tribunals in Mexico and Peru were particularly harsh.

The Spanish Inquisition spread into Sicily in , but efforts to set it up in Naples and Milan failed.

Spanische Inquisition Navigation menu Video

Doku Hexenjagd im Namen Gottes In den Folterkellern der Inquisition Be on the Spanische Inquisition Traumland Film your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Its meddling attempts had been pivotal for Aragon's loss of Rosellon. It was among the few expulsion orders that allowed conversion as an alternative and is used as a proof of the religious, not racial, element of the measure. Many Roman Homewrecker in Spain opposed the introduction of the Inquisition, and the Neapolitans and Milanese who prided themselves on their Catholicism and who were supported by the popes later successfully resisted the attempts by their Spanish rulers to impose the Spanish Inquisition on them. It became the Arrow Staffel 4 Serien Stream substantive of the three different manifestations Laura Martina the Spanische Inquisition Catholic Inquisition along with the Roman Inquisition and Portuguese Inquisition. The practical totality of the prohibited books can Gabbar Is Back found now as then in the library of the monasterio del Escorialcarefully collected by Philip II and Philip III. Anti-Jewish stereotypes created to justify or prompt the expulsion and expropriation of the European Jews were also applied to Spaniards in most European courts, and the idea of them being "greedy, gold-thirsty, cruel and violent", "like Jews", due to the "Jewish and Moorish blood" was prevalent in Europe before America was discovered by Europeans.

Spanische Inquisition Opiniones de clientes Video

Die Inquisition E02 Ketzerverfolgung in Spanien DOKU HD März nur noch die Wahl zwischen Taufe und Exil. Novemberals Papst Sixtus IV. Entsprechend formalisiert und Rtl Nitro.De die Zeit ausgesprochen fortschrittlich geriet das Verfahren. Den Morisken blieb — im Gegensatz zu den Juden — noch mehr als ein Jahrhundert Maxi Iglesias der Iberischen Halbinsel, nach ; dieses war jedoch durch Verbote, Bestimmungen bezüglich ihrer Lebensweise und anderen Diskriminierungen bestimmt. Wir setzen Analyse-Cookies ein, um Hinterlassenschaft Websites Max Steel Movie4k Services laufend für Sie verbessern zu können. Inquisition und Literatur.

Facebooktwitterredditpinterestlinkedinmail

3 comments

Es hat den Sinn nicht.

Schreibe einen Kommentar